In Lower Elementary (6-9 years old), students explore operations using the checkerboard (multiplication), racks and tubes (division), and also using the bead frames to bring home the concepts of place value and manipulating numbers to solve 4 and 5 digit equations.
Multiplication boards are employed for learning math facts, first in a tangible way and then as a tool for memorizing math facts so there is rapid recall; thus preparing them for the next big leap in doing Math in Upper Elementary (9-12 years old). Students at this level become very familiar with practical life skills of using a ruler, telling time and working with money.
It is during the Upper Elementary years that we see a significant jump in standardized test scores, where the underlying concrete understanding of fundamental math concepts and functions help the students to outperform their peers from more traditional backgrounds. It is at this time, that students spend time working with Montessori materials to understand fractions, decimals, percentages, positive and negative place value in the decimal system, and operations with whole numbers (addition and subtraction).
Students become very familiar with counting, adding and subtracting fractions, percents, and converting percents to decimals. Using negative numbers and delving into pre-algebra by creating and solving algebraic equations is routine for students in these grades. Finally, substantial effort is made to make square roots an easily understood concept.
*Join us next Tuesday as we continue to look at Montessori Math